Descriptions & Contact Info
B.P.A. (Business Professionals of America) www.bpa.org
BPA is open to any student (freshman through senior) who is interested in pursuing any type of business or computer technology career. BPA members compete in local, state and national competitions, sponsor Santa's Breakfast, support Special Olympics, attend leadership conferences, and much more. Join the fun!
Chess Team - IHSA Event Contact--Karen_Kripas@ipsd.org
Chess club is open to all students. Come participate in instruction and recreational chess matches to prepare for interscholastic competitions. Meetings and competitions take place during the fall and winter months with practices on Tuesdays and Thursdays after school. Click on the "IHSA Events" tab on the top of the page to view past State placewinners.
FCCLA (Family, Career and Community Leaders of America)
This club is an organization open to any student interested in Family and Consumer Science topics. The purpose is to promote personal growth, leadership, and awareness in Family and Consumer Science careers and related occupations. Students may participate in local, state & national competition as well as leadership conventions.
IDEA (Illinois Drafting Educator's Association)
IDEA is an activity dedicated to providing drafting students with opportunities to participate in regional and state competitions to assess their skills and meet other students with similar career interests.
Math Team Contact-- Kinjal_Marfatia@ipsd.org
ALL students interested in participating in Math competitions may join. Practices are held weekly throughout the year. This team participates in both local and state competitions.
Model United Nations Contact--Stephanie_Stevens@ipsd.org
The goal of Model UN is to learn about problems and solve them from a Global perspective, based on the country a participant is assigned. Participation in the Model United Nations Club is open for all grade levels. Participants research current international events & debate related issues at three conferences: the University of Chicago, Wheaton College and St. Ignatius. Model UN offers a unique opportunity to study current news topics, develop high-level communication skills & to socialize with high school students from across the U.S.
Scholastic Bowl - IHSA Event Contact-- Jen Golminas
Scholastic Bowl is ideal for trivia buffs and Jeopardy lovers. Any interested student may join. The season runs from October through early March. Matches are held with all conference schools and a few local schools. We also participate in invitational tournaments and the IHSA State Tournament series. Click on the "IHSA Events" tab on the top of the page to view past State qualifiers.
Science Olympiad Contacts--Michael_Hoehn@ipsd.org - Head Coach
or assistant Chris_Mueller@ipsd.org
The Science Club is open to students of all ages and ability levels. Each month will feature a theme, and weekly activities will be organized around those themes. Students can participate in each months activities, or only the ones that interest them! Sign-up will be available through your science classes. The Illinois Science Olympiad is an academic competition which features 22 separate events emphasizing process skills and problem-solving strategies as well as general science knowledge. Regional tournaments are held in early spring, with qualifying teams advancing to the State. The 1st place finishers from all participating states advance to nationals.
SkillsUSA is national organization that serves career, industrial, technical, and health occupation students in high schools, career centers, and community colleges. It provides quality education experiences for students in leadership, teamwork, citizenship and character development. It emphasizes total quality at work: high ethical standards, superior work skills, lifelong education and pride in the dignity of work. Members participate in the state skills competition held each spring, as well as, service projects, homecoming activities, fieldtrips, and career exploration.
Speech: Individual Events - IHSA Event Contact--Sabrina_Nunziati@ipsd.org
This activity is open to any student who is interested in competing in the various IHSA and conference meets. Among the various activities include extemporaneous speaking, humorous duet acting, original oratory, dramatic duet acting, prose/poetry reading, original comedy and radio speaking. The season runs September to February and there are opportunities for placing at the conference, regional and state levels. Click on the "IHSA Events" tab on the top of the page to view past State placewinners.
Youth and Government Contact--Chris_Wolak@ipsd.org
The group gives students a hands-on experience working in government, culminating with a weekend trip to the State Capitol. In Springfield, WVHS students enjoy the privilege of using the facilities of the State Capital as they participate in the finest laboratory in state government available.
B.S.A. (Black Student Alliance) Contact--Alexandria_McCain@ipsd.org or
The Black Student Alliance is a group of students who come together to address concerns facing their community, targeting primarily African-American students. The primary focus is on raising test scores on standardized tests, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act, applying to colleges or jumpstarting their careers. This club is open to all.
Chinese Club Contact--Wei_Liu@ipsd.org
Chinese Club helps students to have a better understanding of China, the Chinese culture, and the Chinese language. Chinese Club is open to any student from grades 9-12. Students will have the opportunity to try Chinese food, listen to music, watch movies, learn about the language, and celebrate holidays. There will also be help sessions for students who are currently taking Chinese.
French Club/French Honor Society Contact--Debra_Samuelson@ipsd.org
This club is open to any student interested in French culture. Students have a chance to try French foods, play games, listen to music, see French films, and participate in occasional field trips. French Honor Society: Candidates must be enrolled in the fifth semester of French and must have maintained an A average in French during the semester of selection, as well as an A- average in all French classes. Candidates must also have a B average or higher in all other subjects during the semester of selection, as well as a cumulative B- average in all other subjects. French may not be used to calculate this average.
German Club/German Honor Society Contact--Sara_Wolfersberger@ipsd.org
Any student interested in German culture may join. Activities include games, movies, cooking, festivals, and field trips. German Honor Society: Induction into the German Honor Society requires that students have a 3.6 or higher grade point average in German after at least three semesters with at least a 3.0 average overall. Members are required to continue on to an upper level of German with the exception of graduating seniors. GHS students will also attend German Club meetings.
ISA (Indian Student Association) Contact--Kinjal_Marfatia@ipsd.org
ISA is an emerging club available to any student interested in learning and celebrating Indian Culture. ISA hopes to promote awareness of Indian Culture through a variety of activities and community service projects.
OLAS (Organization of Latin American Students)
Students work to promote awareness of the Latino community both within WVHS and within the community. OLAS participates in a variety of activities including different community service activities, college fairs and Hispanic conferences. OLAS meets to discuss issues that are important to students in the Hispanic community and is open to all students at WVHS that are interested in Hispanic culture and issues facing students.
Spanish Honor Society Contact--Francesco_Merenda@ipsd.org
Third and fourth year Spanish students, who have a cumulative average of B or above, plus teacher recommendation, are invited to be members. They tutor first- and second-year students, attend cultural field trips, and promote the study and use of Spanish beyond the classroom. They are invited to participate in local and national literary and art contests.
Jazz Bands & Combos Contact-- Kevin_Carroll@ipsd.org
The WVHS Jazz program consists of three-tiered jazz bands:Jazz Ensemble, Jazz Band, and Swing Band. The Jazz Ensemble offers the highest quality jazz experience to the most capable players. Both the Jazz Ensemble and Jazz Band perform seasonal concerts and travel to festivals in Illinois and other states. The Swing Band is designed to provide a formative jazz experience and performs at seasonal band concerts and special events. There are also three Jazz Combos that perform at various events both at school and in our community. Placement in any of the above jazz bands is determined by auditions in mid-September.
Marching Band Contact - Kevin_Carroll@ipsd.org
This all-volunteer group performs at all home Varsity football games, two parades and five competitions. The band typically finishes in first or second place at each competition.
Pep Band Contact - Kevin_Carroll@ipsd.org
All band students are eligible to participate in Pep band. Pep band plays at games home Varsity Boys and Girls basketball games as well as special events such as pep rallies. Pep Band and Pep Club will try and work together to create awesome support for our teams.
Percussion Ensemble Contact--Chris_Dandeles@ipsd.org
This ensemble is featured on the annual percussion concert each spring, presenting audiences with significant works for percussion. The percussion ensemble meets twice each week from November to April. Auditions for advanced literature are held in November.
Tri-M Music Honor Society is part of a national organization that is associated
with the National Association for the Education (NAfME). The 3 M's in Tri-M
stand for "Modern", "Music" and "Master". WV
Tri-M students can be seen in the community wearing their purple Tri-M shirts
at concerts and music events. Any WVHS sophomore, junior, or
senior music student enrolled in a curricular group, with an over all GPA
of 3.0 or higher GPA, and earning at least a B in their ensemble can be a member
of Tri-M - applications are available the first few weeks of school each
year. The purpose of Tri-M is to honor our music students as well as
afford them an opportunity to enhance our music department through service
projects and various activities. Initiation to the honor society takes place in
Warrior Strings Contact--John_Burck@ipsd.org
Warrior Strings is an auditionstring ensemble which meets once a week, and performs all types of music. Because this group interacts with the audience frequently, some memorization of the music is required. This ensemble performs in the community and Prism Concerts.
Dance Team Contact-- Megan Voitik
Poms are open to girls 9th - 12th grades. The squad performs at football & basketball games, as well as pep assemblies and competitive competitions. Tryouts are held in the spring for the following year's squad.
Orchesis Contact - Sydney Stevens
Orchesis club is a performing dance troupe. Many forms of dance are utilized - modern, ballet, pointe, tap, jazz and hip-hop. Membership is by audition in the spring. Technique classes and performances take place throughout the year with one main stage performance in the late winter.
Step Team Contactemail@example.com
The art of "stepping" is a dance form that combines elements of military drills with contemporary jazz and hip-hop moves. In stepping, the body takes the place of the drum: this consists of stomping the feet, clapping and slapping the hands against the heels, chest, thighs and other various body parts. This produces the complex rhythmic foundation for this dance style. In addition to this array of bodily percussion, stepping also features complex synchronized body movements, along with singing, chanting, and verbal play. Practices and performances take place throughout the year at many community events. The Step Team participates in area competitions each year.
Auditorium Tech Crew
Students interested in all aspects of technical theatre are encouraged to join this crew. Creating and running the light and soundboard for the various organizations that use the auditorium will be this crew's main function.
Drama Club Contact--Dave_Calvert@ipsd.org
A variety of dramatic opportunities are offered to Waubonsie Valley students. Each year, two main stage productions and a musical are offered. In addition, several studio productions may be staged; student directed one acts, and a production that travels to district middle schools. Other opportunities for students to become involved in acting are offered through participation in the IHSA Speech - Group Interpretation and Individual Events. Students are also encouraged to become involved behind the scenes in areas of technical theatre.
Drama Contest Play - IHSA Event Contact--Dave_Calvert@ipsd.org
This activity's season runs from January through March during odd-numbered years, with competition at the Sectional and State levels. Students interested in technical drama and performance drama should become involved in this activity. Click on the "IHSA Events" tab on the top of the page to view past State placewinners and quaifying teams.
Freshman Studio Production Contact-- Debra_Peplow@ipsd.org
The freshman play is an opportunity for freshmen to experience theatre at the high school level. Auditions are open only to freshmen and offer a variety of experiences. Students will have the opportunity to go through the audition, rehearsal and performance process.
Group Interpretation - IHSA Event Contact--Debra_Peplow@ipsd.org
This activity has its season from January through March during even-numbered years with competition at the Regional and State level. All students who are interested in interpreting literature through acting and oral expression should become involved in this activity. Click on the "IHSA Events" tab on the top of the page to view past State placewinners and qualifying teams.
Mainstage Productions Contact--Dave_Calvert@ipsd.org
Fall Mainstage - WVHS auditions are open to ALL STUDENTS. Auditions will be held in September in the auditorium. The production will take place in October/November.
Winter Mainstage - Auditions are scheduled in November, and are open to ALL STUDENTS. The production is scheduled for February.
Musical - Each year, WVHS stages at least one Broadway musical. Auditions precede the production by 9 weeks, and are open to ALL STUDENTS. The musicals are co-sponsored/directed by the Music and Drama Departments' staff. Numbers in the cast vary, but musicals are selected to allow numerous opportunities for student involvement.
Una Voce Contact-- Kristen_Murray@ipsd.org
Una Voce is a small, mixed ensemble that performs a wide variety of music, including traditional choral pieces, holiday repertoire, jazz and pop. All WVHS Choir members are welcome to audition. The ensemble performs throughout the community and for various WVHS concerts. Auditions will be held in late August. Chamber Singers meet on Tuesdays after school.
Cloud Nine Contact-- Kristen_Murray@ipsd.org
Cloud Nine is a student-led, nine-voice male a cappella vocal ensemble. They prepare and perform pop, doo-wop, and novelty selections as well as some traditional choral music. Students must be enrolled in a curricular choir to be eligible to participate. Auditions are held in May to establish membership. This is a full-year activity, and the ensemble performs in each of the five curricular choral concerts presented each year.
Pink Notes Contact-- Kristen_Murray@ipsd.org
Pink Notes is a student-led, nine-voice female a cappella vocal ensemble. They prepare and perform pop, doo-wop, and novelty selections as well as some traditional choral music. Students must be enrolled in a curricular choir to be eligible to participate. Auditions are held in May to establish membership. This is a full-year activity, and the ensemble performs in each of the five curricular choral concerts presented each year.
Mosaic Choir Contact-- Seth_Durbin@ipsd.org
A mosaic is a unique form of art created by bringing many differently shaped and colored pieces of the same material together to ultimately create a single work of beauty. In the choral ensemble Mosaic, the diverse students of Waubonsie Valley experience a sense of unity through the expressive qualities of multicultural music. The choir is open to all students of WVHS regardless of enrollment in a curricular choir.
Show Choirs Contact-- Seth_Durbin@ipsd.org
The show choirs are ensembles of singer-dancers that perform pop, contemporary, and show tunes in costume with choreography. They rehearse weekly and perform in choral concerts, show choir festivals and clinics, and several community performances throughout the year. Auditions are held in May of the previous school year. Members must also participate in the curricular choir program.
Premiere - Literary Magazine Contact--Jen_Kastner@ipsd.org
Students interested in poetry, stories, art, and/or photography may join the staff of Premiere, which meets throughout the year to select and prepare for the May publication of a collection of our school's finest student writing and art. The magazine is submitted annually to the National Council of Teachers of English for evaluation. Enrollment in Creative Writing I and II are suggested.
The Voice - School Newspaper Contact-- VACANT
The Voice is the WVHS official student-run newspaper. The paper is produced on a bi-quarterly basis by the newspaper journalism class. Students will apply skills in writing, photography, design, and business to the production of the newspaper. To be considered for the staff, a student must apply to the newspaper journalism class and receive teacher approval.
The Arrowhead - Yearbook Contact-- Alice_Jauch@ipsd.org
The Arrowhead Yearbook staff is designed for students who enjoy reporting, writing, photography, and design. An interest/background in computer graphics is also a plus. To be on staff, students must apply to the yearbook journalism class, interview, and receive teacher's approval.
American Red Cross Club Contact-- Rebecca_Goff@ipsd.org
The American Red Cross Club works closely with local Red Cross chapter, engaging in projects that address some of our country’s and world’s greatest needs such as preparing the community for disasters. We plan and participate in service projects that will help the school, the community and make an impact around the globe.
Best Buddies Contact-- Kelly_Scheffert@ipsd.org
Available to all students, the goal of Best Buddies is to pair up same aged peers with other students who have varying disabilities. Once paired, buddies participate in a variety of activities in and out of school throughout the school year.
Key Club Contact--Andrew_Krueger@ipsd.org
Key Club is an International Service Organization, supported by the local KIWANIS, and offered to the young men and women of WVHS. The club sponsors various projects throughout the year designed to help others less fortunate/those in need. Interested students may join.
Link Crew Contact--Lauren_Heinz@ipsd.org or Andrew_Krueger@ipsd.org
Link Crew is a nationwide program for junior and senior students who seek to provide guidance and support to the freshmen class. The year-long program starts in the spring for current sophomores and juniors who are interested in developing their leadership skills, sharing their experiences, and promoting a positive school environment. Students start with a training and kick off the year with freshmen orientation in August. During the year, Link Crew works with freshmen students in a variety of settings to help them succeed at the high school level.
Snowball Contact-- Tricia_Ratchev@ipsd.org
Operation Snowball is a leadership program highlighted by weekend retreats for high school students every fall and spring. Snowball emphasizes making healthy choices and helps teens enhance their self-esteem, develop and refine decision making skills, and create a positive impact on peers. The name comes from the idea that, If I have a positive impact on you, you can have a positive impact on someone else, and the effect snowballs. Snowball began as an alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse prevention programs, and has expanded into making a difference in teens lives in hundreds of different ways. http://snow.ncoyouth.org
SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS
Art Club Contact - Mollie_Bozarth@ipsd.org
Any interested student may join. Students do not need to be currently enrolled in an art class to participate. Members may also elect to work in media that they have not been able to experience in the classroom. Art Club members have been involved with community service projects. Art Club
also includes Digital Photography Club.
Open to all students interested in the art of photography. Students will take pictures with their own digital cameras and manipulate them in a computer lab. Students will focus on composition and the technical skill of photography. Computer graphics will not be the focus of this club and students will be required to use online photo development for hard copies.
Aspiring Medical Professionals Contact -Christopher_Schramm@ipsd.org
Aspiring Medical Professionals (AMP) Club is a club that provides students an opportunity to learn about and participate in activities relating to the medical field. It is for all students that have an interest in pursuing a medical career. Activities include guest speakers, CPR training, tours, and case studies.
Book Club Contact-- Kristen_Mattson@ipsd.org
Open to all students who enjoy reading and sharing what they read. This club is student-driven and meets every two weeks. Our student book selection committee decides what we read. Join us for snacks and discussion.
Christian Student Association Contact-- James_Donahue@ipsd.org
This organization is for all students interested in learning more about Christianity. We support and affirm each other by reading and studying the Bible, by discussing current events, by participating in community outreach activities, and by living out our faith in our daily lives. We meet on Tuesday mornings at 6:45 a.m. in room 294. New members are always welcome.
Open for any and all students of Waubonsie, this club is not only a support group and awareness group, but an active group to help regarding diseases ranging from cancer to autoimmune, primary immune, diabetes, and even dyslexia. Students who have been diagnosed with chronic diseases are encouraged to participate, as well as friends, students with a diagnosed family member, and anyone simply curious. We will exchange stories of overcoming the struggle in our lives related to these life altering diseases, questions about how to help improve the experience of these students in our school, fundraise for charities, and welcome guest speakers.
Educators Rising Contact-- Michelle_DeMar@ipsd.org
Educators Rising provides students with the opportunity to explore teaching as a career option, to help them develop a realistic understanding of teaching and to encourage students to think seriously about the teaching profession. Some of our activities for members include job shadowing of teachers for a school day, helping elementary students in a tutoring program and other school sponsored activities.
Gamers' Club -- Student Group Contact--Kati Ianno
Gamers' Club is a
relaxed club open to all students interested in gaming. During club
meetings, students hang out and play a wide variety of games, from video games
to role-playing games like Dungeons and Dragons. Students can use our gaming
equipment or can bring their own.
GEMS Club -- Student Group Contact--Pam_Westfall@ipsd.org
GEMS Club (Girls in Engineering Math and Science)is for any young woman who is interested in a career in math, science (including biological sciences) and engineering. Typical meetings may include any one of the following: Exploration of career opportunities; outreach programs to encourage middle school students in the enjoyment of science and math; "make and take" projects--fun ideas that you can explore that encompass engineering, environmental science or molecular biology principles; and guest speakers for various topics.
Greenhouse Club Contact--Rhonda_Stibbe@ipsd.org
The Greenhouse Club is for any student enrolled in Horticulture class who is interested in doing more horticultural activities. It focuses on preparing students for competitions, scholarship opportunities and practical applications like-corsage work, greenhouse work, fieldtrips to horticultural locations. It is a social, educational and student led club. Because it is student run, activities are selected each year based on interest. Past activities have included: competitions at other high schools, trips to the Arboretum, botanical gardens, and local horticultural businesses, making unique floral arrangements for the holidays, and doing unusual horticulture like bonsai and topiaries.
Identity is Waubonsie's Gay-Straight Alliance. This student-lead group strives to make the school a safe place to learn for its gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students by encouraging tolerance through a combination of social activities and community building events.
Muslim Student Association Contact--Atiqa Ali-Ghori firstname.lastname@example.org
The Muslim Student Association (MSA) is open to all students interested in learning more about Islam. The group holds a student-led Friday prayer (Jummah) and sermon (Khutbah). The main focus of the group is to learn about Islam and support each other in implementing our faith into our daily lives. We discuss current events, participate in community activities and prepare to compete in the Muslim Interscholastic Tournament (MIST). MSA meets bimonthly, on Fridays at 2:30 in Room 299.
Robotics Club Contact - Matthew_Ristow@ipsd.org
Robotics Club is a hands on, team-oriented club that focuses on working with the VEX Robotic system. Students have an opportunity to design, build, program and test the robotic vehicles they create. Ultimately, the students test the performance and success of the robots they create in a regional competition against other local high school Robotics Clubs. If you like to solve problems in a fun and exciting hands-on environment, then come c heck out Robotics Club.
Video Club Contact--Brian_Wiencek@ipsd.org
Video Club, also called WVTV, is a video production club that creates some of the many videos that come to WVTV to be produced. The only crew position that requires experience is the Student Director. The Student Director must be a TV student, or be able to demonstrate TV production experience from community TV or another School. WVTV competes in the Chicagoland High School Video Festival, sponsored by Columbia College and CTEC (Chicagoland Television Educators Council), and hosts their own Young Filmmakers Video Festival in the spring.
SPORTS SPECIAL INTEREST
Hockey Student Group http://www.waubonsiehockey.com
Know what it feels like to play for your school. Play in the Competitive Metro West League! There are set practice schedules, goalie training coaches, a fund raiser and plenty of hockey action.
Intramural sports are offered to any student not participating in an interscholastic sport during the same season. Fall Intramural sports are Open Gym, Flag Football, and Powder Puff Football. Basketball is offered in the winter and in the Spring there is Bowling.
Ultimate Frisbee: VACANT
Ultimate is a fun, competitive, coed (males and females) team sport that requires no experience. This spring sport competes in the CHSUL Ultimate League against many of the surrounding high school teams. All are welcomed to be a part of this interactive experience!
Yoga (Intramural): Daryl_Silberman@ipsd.org
meets weekly on Thursday in the Dance Studio (rm 236) from 2:40 - 3:30pm
through December and again from late February through April. Please wear
clothing you feel comfortable moving in. Bring your own mat or use a WV mat. We
*will* have shoes off in yoga. Each practice will include a meditation with
breath focus, mat work (both seated and standing) and a savasana at the
conclusion. Students need to have signed WV Activity form with parent signature in order to participate (please bring
to your first practice - it'll be kept on file). Beginners as well as
experienced yogis welcome!
Table Tennis: Ambakisye_Somola@ipsd.org
Lacrosse Student Group http://wvlacrosse.org/
Lacrosse is an emerging IHSA sport. The sport of lacrosse is a combination of basketball, soccer and hockey. Anyone can play lacrosse--the big or the small. The game requires (and rewards) coordination and agility, not brawn. Quickness and speed are two highly prized qualities in lacrosse. An exhilarating sport, lacrosse is fast-paced and full of action. Long sprints up and down the field, abrupt starts and stops, precision passes and dodges are routine in men's and women's lacrosse. Lacrosse is played with a stick, the crosse, which must be mastered by the player to throw, catch and scoop the ball.
Rugby Student Group Contact - info@ChiefsRFC.com
Web Site - http://www.ChiefsRFC.com
Waubonsie Valley Rugby is open to all students, male and female, 5th grade through Senior. The preseason runs from January to February and the League season runs March through May. Teams compete against other local high schools in competitive matches. EVERY kid plays. A social Fall program is offered for kids not involved in other school sports. In 2009 the WV Rugby team won the D2 State Championship and in 2014 claimed the D1 State Championship Title. Multiple college scholarships have been received every year by boys and girls.
Special Olympics Contact--Alfonso_Ruiz@ipsd.org
Special Olympics offers year-round training and competitions in Olympic-style sports to
high school athletes with intellectual disabilities. Our individual and team sports include Unified Soccer, basketball, aquatics, track and field, and bowling. WV Special Olympics ensures that everyone has the chance to exert themselves to the fullest, to reach beyond their own limits, and to feel proud of their achievements. Students volunteer as peer coaches to assist with the different sports seasons as well. Please visit our team site at www.wvspecialolympics.org.
Student Council -- Head Contact -- Alexandra_Rentner@ipsd.org
Freshman Contact--Jennifer_Bokermann@ipsd.org or Stephen_Spinelli@ipsd.org
Sophomore Contact--or Michelle_DeMar@ipsd.org or Alison_Heuer@ipsd.org
Junior Contact-- Jill_Casey@ipsd.org or Karen_Labiak@ipsd.org
Our organization is for students who are interested in taking pride & leadership roles in their school. Each class council consists of three officers & their elected class representatives. These students are elected by their respective classes & aid the council in developing & improving activities. Many of our activities encourage both school & community involvement throughout the year. Class meetings are held during fourth hour lunch. Additionally, representatives will attend full Student Council meetings once a month. Student Council Web Site
Senior Contact-- Cynthia_Gustafson@ipsd.org or Stacy_Rivera@ipsd.org
Offerings are subject to change